Introduction. There are several benefits of diffusing BIM technologies and processes with set of protocols adopted while delivering Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation (hereinafter AECO) projects. Few of the uses while diffusing BIM in the process of delivering building projects (well known as BIM Uses) are improved visualization, enhanced planning, accurate cost estimation, model based simulation and analysis, construction tracking, safety planning, etc. BIM Uses are the project deliverables that can be expected from the process of generating, collaborating-on and linking the building models to external databases. In simple words, the BIM Use represents the interactions between a user and a modeling system to generate building model-based deliverables (Source: The BIMe Dictionary).
For the BIM project to be successful, it is well known for the Global AECO industry that, BIM project and its deliverables are the end products which needs to be delivered by the AEC organizations to the owner organizations as expected. And, it is essential to confirm that: which are the BIM uses expected by the client? What BIM tools need to be adopted while delivering expected BIM uses? Who are the stakeholders need to be involved while delivering each of these BIM Uses? In which stage of the project does these BIM Uses delivery occur? How to deliver these BIM Uses asper client expectations? And many more questions arise that needs to be answered during the BIM project delivery.
To understand BIM Uses and how to deliver it in BIM projects, we had performed BIM Uses related literature review. This literature review reveals us that there are currently nine BIM Uses publications available (see able 1). Initial work towards BIM Uses was in year 2010 and more recently i.e. from last two years there are several publications that discuss about BIM uses and how to deliver it to the client’s expectations. From table 1, one can gain an understanding towards available BIM Uses publications, year of development, country of origin and number of BIM uses that has been explored in each of these literatures.
Table 1. Existing publications on BIM Uses.
|BIM Uses||Year||Country||Number of BIM uses|
|VA BIM Guide||2010||USA||19 BIM Uses stated and only 10 defined|
|New York city BIM Guide||2012||USA||15 well defined BIM uses|
|Penn State University||2013||USA||25 well defined BIM Uses mapped to four phases|
|Finland COBIM Standards||2014||UK||12 loosely defined common BIM requirements across phases|
|Succar’s framework||2015||Australia||73 well defined BIM Uses organized in 7 model use series|
|DCAMM BIM Uses||2015||USA||51 well defined BIM Uses|
|Mass port Authority BIM Uses||2016||USA||51 well defined BIM Uses|
|PANYNJ BIM Uses||2016||USA||48 BIM Uses and none defined|
|HARVARD UCMC-BIM Uses Guide||2016||USA||20 well defined BIM Uses with 108 sub BIM Use categories within|
And, the BIM Uses associated research by Badrinath et al. (2016) reveals that, the BIM researchers had discussed on benefits achieved in building’s project life cycle with the use of BIM. BIM researchers had documented the BIM Uses within different phases of a project (CIC 2011; McGraw-Hill Construction 2012; Kreider & Messner 2015; BIM ThinkSpace 2015). Few client organizations such as Division of Capital Asset Management and Maintenance (DCAMM), Mass port authority (MPA), Harvard university Construction Management Council (Harvard UCMC) and Penn state university (PSU) are expecting BIM uses delivery in their projects with a standard process applied by the contractor organizations. To date, several construction projects which has integrated BIM in their project’s process have reported the benefits from the use of BIM technology, and BIM is recommended as the solution for project performance and productivity issues (Mihindu & Arayici 2008; Eastman et al. 2011; Li et al. 2014).
Globally, several AEC organizations are delivering projects with the adoption of BIM tools & techniques in design and construction process. It is very much clear that, there exists a well-defined BIM project requirement from the client organizations and with distinctly available BIM uses for the AECO projects. It is essential for the AEC organizations to realize: what benefits of BIM has been expected from the owner organizations? And, what level of BIM in project has been delivered by AEC organizations? Gaining understanding towards these questions profits both the AEC and Owner organizations.
To gain further understanding towards existing BIM Uses and available database (BIM uses publications), we had compared BIM Uses in the existing six out of nine BIM uses framework, standards and guidelines, i.e. from Bilal’s BIM Use framework, Massachusetts port authority BIM guide, DCAMM BIM guide, Harvard University BIM use guide, PSU-BIM uses classification and, the port authority of NY & NJ-BIM standard (see table 2 for sample view).
Table 2. Mapping of BIM uses in existing BIM uses framework, standards and guidelines
|Sl. No.||Succar’s framework||Massachusetts port authority BIM Guideline – BIM Uses||Division of Capital asset management & maintenance – BIM Uses||Harvard University – BIM Uses guide||PSU – BIM Uses classification||The Port Authority of NY & NJ – BIM standard manual||BIM Use repeats in these number of publications.|
|1||Photogrammetry||Existing conditions – laser scanning; Existing conditions modeling-building interior||Existing conditions-laser scanning; Existing conditions-interiors modelling||Existing conditions (Surrounding area; existing buildings; Geo-Tech; Site & topography)||Existing Conditions Modeling||Existing conditions modelling||6|
|2||Site analysis||BIM project site modeling-infrastructure modeling||BIM project site modeling-infrastructure modeling||Logistics planning (Site planning)||Site Utilization Planning; 3D Control and Planning (Digital Layout)||Site analysis||6|
|System analysis (retrofitting)
|Design analysis (Sustainability/evaluation)
|Sustainability / LEED Evaluation
NOTE: In the process of mapping we had considered BIM uses from Succar’s framework as the initial list of BIM uses and then mapped them with BIM uses of other six framework, standards and guidelines. This table in here showcases only three BIM uses mapping as a sample list and other BIM uses were mapped in similar manner. This mapping process is based on the brainstorming sessions performed by the authors and further discussions with domain experts for validation purpose.
Detailed analysis of the BIM uses in these BIM frameworks, standards and guidelines revealed that there are currently 75 BIM uses defined. We had also performed the process of mapping similar/repeating BIM uses in all the six publications, we found that: (1) 34 BIM uses were found common in all the six publications; (2) 22 BIM uses were found common in five publications; (3) 6 BIM uses in 4 publications; (4) 5 BIM uses in 3 publications; (5) 4 BIM uses in 2 publications; And, 4 BIM uses were found only in one publications. It is our belief that, the thirty-four BIM uses that were found in all the six BIM uses publications can be considered as most commonly used BIM uses in AECO projects.
Badrinath, A. C., Chang, Y. T., & Hsieh, S. H. (2016a). An Overview of Global Research Trends in BIM from Analysis of BIM Publications. In proceedings of 16th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (ICCCBE 2016), July 6-8th, Osaka, Japan.
BIM ThinkSpace. (2015). Episode 24: Understanding Model Uses. Retrieved from BIM Think Space website: http://www.bimthinkspace.com/, accessed on September 10, 2015.
CIC. 2011. Computer Integrated Construction Research Program. “BIM Project Execution Planning Guide – Version 2.1.” May, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Retrieved from http://bim.psu.edu on April 17, 2016.
Construction, M. H. (2014). Smart Market report: the business value of BIM for construction in major global markets. Retrieved from McGraw-Hill Construction website: http://analyticsstore. construction. com/smartmarket-reports/GlobalBIMSMR14. html.
Eastman, C. M., Teicholz, P., & Sacks, R. (2011). BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors. John Wiley & Sons.
Kreider, R. & Messner, J. (2015). A Model Use Ontology. Proceedings of CIB 2015 World Building Congress.
Li, J., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Luo, H., Kang, S. C., Wang, J., … & Jiao, Y. (2014). Benefits of building information modelling in the project lifecycle: construction projects in Asia. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 11.
Mihindu, S., & Arayici, Y. (2008). Digital construction through BIM systems will drive the re-engineering of construction business practices. In Visualization, 2008 International Conference (pp. 29-34). IEEE.
I am thankful to Prof. Shang-Hsien Hsieh for his support throughout this research process. And, special thanks to my parents and wife for their constant support in life.
Founder, India BIM Association
PhD Candidate, National Taiwan University
International Representative, Zigurat Global Institute of Technology
Mobile: +886 978529649
An alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Bangalore University and Visvesvaraya Technological University is currently pursuing PhD on Building Information Modeling (BIM) at National Taiwan University where he is investigating on “Performance measurements in BIM projects. Amarnath CB, has a research experience for more than seven years on BIM at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Imperial College London and National Taiwan University and a year of teaching experience at Visvesvaraya Technological University. He is progressing towards BIM research with several other directions, i.e. Global BIM trends, BIM adoption, lean & green, building information services, industry-wide adoption, education & training and real-life cases. He is the founder of India BIM Association. He is also the Co-Founder of Global BIM News & India-Taiwan Foundation initiatives. Playing an active role as a member of editorial team for IJM&P and ISCCBE BIM technical committee member. He is also the member of ASCE, CIOB & RICS. Amarnath CB can be contacted through ResearchGate & LinkedIn.